Meaning of Speech Markers

In the same way that sounds come together to form words, and these are grouped together in utterances, so utterances combine to form higher units: texts.

Discourse markers are words or phrases whose function is to guide the interpretation of the text by expressing the relationships that exist between the ideas contained in it. Thus, they relate the prayer in which they find themselves with the general meaning of the text.

For example, in the following statement, the marker therefore presents the idea contained in the second sentence as a conclusion of the idea expressed in the first.

It’s your first day of school. You are, therefore, a little nervous.

Discourse markers are a very heterogeneous group of elements, so there are several terms to designate them; markers, operators, connectors, among others. Certain adverbs (finally, then, after all, like this) can act as markers of discourse, certain phrases (notwithstanding, therefore, first, then finally …), interjections and conjunctions. They all coincide in their invariable character.

Types of labels

According to DEFINITIONEXPLORER, markers can be classified according to the information they clarify. They can express the speaker’s attitude towards the content of the utterance (certainly, clearly, obviously etc.) or comment on the meaning produced by the utterance, that is, the utterance (frankly, sincerely, really etc.).

There are also connectors that refer to the text itself (briefly, schematically, finally, etc.).

Bookmark functions

Bookmarks have three fundamental functions:

Structure the information, separating the introduction from the comments ( well, by the way … ) or presenting it as part of a sequence ( first, on the other hand … ). Example:

First, we will talk about invertebrate animals.

Connect statements, paragraphs and blocks of ideas, establishing relations of addition (in addition, including …), of consequence (thus, therefore, consequently …) or counterpoint (instead of, on the contrary, but nevertheless, however, nevertheless …). Example:

The speaker looked strange. His voice, however, was prodigious.

Reformulate the information in a more appropriate way, explaining it (that is, in other words, or better, in summary …). Example:

Everyone told me the same thing, that is, it must be right.

Intensifiers and mitigators

Intensifiers and attenuators are rhetorical strategies used in the language to express information indirectly, manipulating the discourse according to the purpose of the emitter. The intensifiers make us understand, more vehemently, what was really said. They can be created through grammatical, lexical-semantic and phraseological resources. Examples:

I die laughing.

I was shaking with fear,

On the contrary, mitigations serve as a strategy to reduce the significant strength of a word, an action or an expression. They are created by the internal or external modification of words, by means of certain verbs or performative formulas. Examples:

Maria found it a little strange. “Would you do me a favor and let me pass?”

Speech Markers