Types of Texts

The types of texts are theoretical constructions defined by the linguistic composition, which is: lexical aspect, syntactic aspect, verbal tenses and logical relations. That is, the infrastructure of the text.

Unlike textual genres that are unlimited and that change according to human communication, textual types are divided into 5 categories or also called thematic bases: narrative , argumentative , expository , descriptive and injunctive .

Based on the types presented and analyzing their main characteristics, it is understood how they are organized sequentially and give rise to texts materialized in genres.

Descriptive text

It consists in portraying with words a being, object, space or a scene. In the case of animated beings, the characterization can be physical and psychological. Descriptive strings predominate in some textual genres, such as profiles (for dating sites, for example), classified ads, sketch pictures, tour guides, etc.

In this type of text there is practically no action and time remains stagnant. Nouns, adjectives and connecting verbs predominate. Most descriptive sequences are dependent on narrative sequences.

In a literary text, the descriptive sequences are responsible for giving life to the characters, making them credible and capable of carrying out actions intrinsically related to their personality and character. In some works, descriptive sequences gain even more importance, as they not only characterize characters, but say a lot about the narrator and the communicative function of the plot.

Narrative text

It is based on the actions of the characters and the temporal progression. Unlike the descriptive sequence, it is dynamic and makes the story (whether real or fictional) advance. Action verbs predominate in narrative texts. The plot can be divided into four parts: exposure, conflict, climax and outcome.

According to ESHAOXING, narrative sequences prevail in literary texts, short stories, novels, dramatic texts, but they are also present in everyday texts: phone calls, conversations, reports, news, reports, minutes, etc.

Expository or explanatory text

It consists of presenting, conceptualizing and detailing a certain theme, aiming at the dissemination of information or knowledge. It is typical of dictionary entries and encyclopedias, but it is also present in chronicles, news, textbooks and academic texts (articles, theses, monographs, seminars, etc.).

They are texts that are based on observations or research and present a certain objectivity, in a direct language, without bluntness.

Argumentative text

It is a type of text whose main objective is to convince someone of something. It is characterized by the logical progression of ideas, and, unlike the expository sequence, it not only presents ideas, but defends them from a standpoint.

Its objective is to defend a point of view, through arguments based on observations and research data.

It is the basis of opinion texts, reader letters, editorials, religious and legal texts, advertisements, etc.

Injunctive text

This type of text prescribes procedures, gives step-by-step instructions and guidelines, in addition to determining rules in order to modify behaviors. It usually presents verbs in the imperative or in the infinitive and is characterized by being more impersonal.

It is typical of instruction manuals, corporate e-mails, information posters, advertising texts, culinary recipes, etc.

Types of Texts